Scarlet & Grey
Ohio State University
School of Music

Sixty Methodological Potholes - Study Guide

The following table identifies a number of fallacies, problems, biases, and effects that scholars have, over the centuries, recognized as confounding the conduct of good research. Note that some of these "potholes" remain contentious among some scholars.

ad hoc hypothesis
ad hominen argument
carry-over effect
ceiling effect
cohort bias
cohort effect
confirmation bias
contradiction blindness
control failure
anti-operationalizing problem
cultural bias
cultural ignorance
data neglect
demand characteristics
discovery fallacy
double-use data
egocentric bias
exclusion problem
expectancy effect
floor effect
head-in-the-sand syndrome
hindsight bias
history effect
instrument decay
ipse dixit
magnitude blindness
maturation confounds
mortality problem
multiple tests
naturalist fallacy
order effect
placebo effect
positive results bias
positivist fallacy
post-hoc hypothesis
premature reduction
presumptive representation
problem of ecological validity
problem of induction
reactivity problem
regression artifacts
relativist fallacy
reliability problem
research hoarding
sampling bias
sensitivity syndrome
shifting population problem
skills neglect
testing effect
third variable problem
top-drawer effect
unfalsifiable hypothesis
universalist phobia
validity problem

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