The following table identifies a number of fallacies, problems, biases, and effects that scholars have, over the centuries, recognized as confounding the conduct of good research. Note that some of these "potholes" remain contentious among some scholars.

**ad hoc hypothesis**

**ad hominen argument**

**carry-over effect**

**ceiling effect**

**cohort bias**

**cohort effect**

**confirmation bias**

**contradiction blindness**

**control failure**

**anti-operationalizing problem**

**cultural bias**

**cultural ignorance**

**data neglect**

**demand characteristics**

**discovery fallacy**

**double-use data**

**egocentric bias**

**exclusion problem**

**expectancy effect**

**floor effect**

**head-in-the-sand syndrome**

**hindsight bias**

**history effect**

**hypocrisy**

**instrument decay**

**ipse dixit**

**magnitude blindness**

**maturation confounds**

**mortality problem**

**multiple tests**

**naturalist fallacy**

**order effect**

**over-generalization**

**placebo effect**

**positive results bias**

**positivist fallacy**

**post-hoc hypothesis**

**premature reduction**

**presumptive representation**

**problem of ecological validity**

**problem of induction**

**reactivity problem**

**regression artifacts**

**reification**

**relativist fallacy**

**reliability problem**

**research hoarding**

**sampling bias**

**sensitivity syndrome**

**shifting population problem**

**skills neglect**

**spelunking**

**testing effect**

**third variable problem**

**top-drawer effect**

**unfalsifiable hypothesis**

**universalist phobia**

**validity problem**

This document is available at http://dactyl.som.ohio-state.edu/Music829C/study.guide.html